The consumption of alcohol is a major factor influencing both the risk of road accidents and the gravity of their consequences. According to the World Health Organization, in the majority of the developed countries around 20% of fatal accidents involve at least one driver driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). Alcohol-related crashes often occur during the night and generally at weekends or during the spare time (WHO, 2007). In Italy, the number and gravity of car accidents occurring at night and during weekends increases dramatically (ISTAT, 2007). Moreover, these accidents frequently involve young people, who are more likely to go clubbing. The outreach project primaEpoi.it, implemented by the association Ala Milano Onlus, works inside the clubs of the city of Milan. It aims to prevent harm from the consumption of alcohol and psychoactive substances.
To prevent alcohol-related road accidents. To offer incentives, linked to a positive result of the breathalyzer test (<0,5 g/l) when leaving the club, to aim to decrease the percentage of drivers leaving the club with a BAC above the legal limit.
The project involves:
- Dissemenation of information via designated driver intervention leaflets;
- Drug free afternoons in clubs that are open for aged under 18;
- Video with preventive messages in clubs;
- Training staff;
- Support to organisations for safer events/concerts;
- Use of blog to continue relationships with customers (use of facebook/secondlife).
Method: pre-experimental research design with a control group and no pre-test. The two conditions of the independent variable were presence or absence of the Safe Driver intervention. A group of drivers who participated in the intervention (DDs N=124) was compared to a group that did not (non-DDs N=139).
Results: (1) DDs' mean BAC was significantly lower than non-DDs', but (2) the incentive motivated just 5% of DDs to drink less and (3) there is a bias in the selection of DDs that present a lower DUI risk profile than non-DDs.
The effectiveness of the intervention does not seem to be supported by strong evidence. The free-entrance incentive has a poor capacity to motivate drivers to drink less. More research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of designated driver interventions removing the bias in the selection of using other incentives and to have a clear view of designated drivers risk profile.
Male and Females aged 16-35
Working with owners to promote environmental prevention (theoretical reference at www.irefrea.org)Drug free afternoons (for under 18 year old events) are based on normative education theory by correcting perception of consumption, providing correct information, and by promoting a positive image of non consumers.The designated driver intervention is based on behavioural theories.
Designated driver intervention
A specific process evaluation of the Safe-driver intervention was not carried out, but we do carry out unspecific process evaluation of the entire project with trimestral reports.
We carried out an evaluation of a designated driver (DD) intervention to prevent alcohol-related road accidents in 4 clubs of Milan during a period of 2 months (June-July 2008). Right now we are planning another evaluation of the same type of intervention with some different features in order to assess if the intervention itself is poor or can be improved.
DDs' mean BAC was significantly lower than non-DDs', but (2) the incentive motivated just 5% of DDs to drink less and (3) there is a bias in the selection of DDs that present a lower DUI risk profile than non-DDs. The effectiveness of the intervention does not seem to be supported by strong evidence. The free-entrance incentive has a poor capacity to motivate drivers to drink less.
Aresi, Fornari, Repetto & Scolari (under review), Evaluation of a designated driver intervention to prevent alcohol-related road accidents in the clubs of Milan, Italy, Addiciones.
An abstract for this journal article can be found in the HNT literature section here.