Outcome expectancies and ecstasy use in visitors of rave parties in the Netherlands
European Addiction Research
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between outcome expectancies and ecstasy use in a sample of visitors of raves. The type of expectancies that people endorse were explored, as well as the differences between users and nonusers in expected outcomes of ecstasy use, and the associations between expectancies and quantity of ecstasy use within the group of users. Questionnaires were administered to 844 young visitors of 7 parties in the Netherlands, of which 543 reported to be users. Drug use on these parties was high: 65% reporting ecstasy use. Factor analyses showed 7 factors: negative consequences, enhancement, euphoria, sexiness, dancing, communication and self-insight. These factors strongly discriminated between users and nonusers. In particular those who scored high on self-insight and low on negative effects were most likely to use ecstasy. The expected outcomes of ecstasy are related to ecstasy use and patterns of use providing information for health education directed on long-term negative and positive effects of ecstasy use. Longitudinal research on random samples of visitors of raves is warranted.